More studies that take into account these variable contexts are needed to gauge the impact they may have on gay and lesbian parents and their children as well as how parents cope with these issues. Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Most were high school graduates, had been born in the U. Pew Research Center; See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Claims that children need both a mother and father presume that women and men parent differently in ways crucial to development but generally rely on studies that conflate gender with other family structure variables.
Instead they offer reasonable arguments for 1 more caution when drawing strong conclusions based on the available science; and 2 that data based on probability samples might lead to different findings than are currently drawn from available data.
Accessed June Here is the complete list of the 57 statistically significant comparisons between children of lesbian mothers and other children who did not grow up in an "intact biological family: Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question.
These findings are consistent with and extend previous literature about families headed by LG parents, particularly those that have adopted children.